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Evaporation Materials

Evaporation Materials

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Evaporation Materials

Vacuum evaporation coating, referred to as evaporation, refers to the process of evaporating and vaporizing the coating material (or film material) by using a certain heating and evaporation method under vacuum conditions, and the particles fly to the surface of the substrate to condense and form a film. Evaporation is an earlier and widely used vapor deposition technology, which has the advantages of simple film forming method, high film purity and compactness, and unique film structure and performance. The materials used in vacuum evaporation are called evaporation materials.

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The physical process of evaporation includes:

The deposition material is evaporated or sublimated into gaseous particles → gaseous particles are quickly transported from the evaporation source to the substrate surface → gaseous particles attach to the substrate surface to nucleate and grow into a solid film → film atomic reconstruction or chemical bonding occurs.

Put the substrate into the vacuum chamber, heat the film material by means of resistance, electron beam, laser, etc., to evaporate or sublimate the film material, and gasify it into particles (atoms, molecules or atomic groups) with certain energy (0.1-0.3eV).

The gaseous particles are rapidly transported to the substrate in a linear motion without collision. Part of the particles that reach the surface of the substrate are reflected, and the other part is adsorbed on the substrate and diffuses on the surface. Two-dimensional collisions occur between deposited atoms to form clusters. It may remain on the surface for a short time before evaporating.

Particle clusters constantly collide with diffusing particles, or absorb single particles, or emit single particles.

This process is repeated. When the number of aggregated particles exceeds a certain critical value, it becomes a stable nucleus, and then continues to absorb and diffuse particles to grow gradually. Finally, a continuous film is formed through the contact and merger of adjacent stable nuclei.

3 Ways of Evaporation

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